Tag Archives: M-346

Debut of Italian T-346s as Lead-In Fighter Trainers

For the first time in history the Italian Air Force has used their new Finmeccanica / FNM Aeronautics (fka Alenia Aermacchi) T-346A Masters in the final stage (Phase IV) of the Lead-in Fighter Training (LIFT).

Under the guidance of the Test and Standardization Division at Decimomannu Airbase, the 212th Group of 61 Wing (212° Gruppo / 61° Stormo) executed various missions, including air-to-ground combat, with the new advanced trainer marketed by its maker as the M-346.

Learning from the Master – AHF↑Inside the M-346 training base

Head on with the Italian Air Force T-346. (Image © Elmer van Hest)
Head on with the Italian Air Force T-346.
(Image © Elmer van Hest)

Pilots flew both high and low angle mission profiles, engaged in air combat and did that with several levels of difficulties, a statement of the Aeronautica Militare reads. Combat scenarios with targets both Within Visual Range (WVR) as well as Beyond Visual Range (BVR) were tried both during intercept as well as escort missions.

Alenia M-339C

Commanders of the Italian Air Force think that with the T-346A Master they can not only better prepare future pilots for Operational Conversion Training and front-line units, they also feel they can do it quicker than with the older Alenia M-339C (FT339C) the new Masters are replacing.

Three Finmeccanica Masters taxiing on Decimomannu in this somewhat edited released image by the Italian Air Force (Image © Aeronautica Militare)
Three Finmeccanica Masters taxiing on Decimomannu in this somewhat edited image released by the Italian Air Force (Image © Aeronautica Militare)

Recently the Italian Air Force (AMI) has raised the number of firm orders for the new T-346A from 9 to 18 aircraft, while at the AMI training base of Lecce the first Polish Air Force pilot took to the skies in what will be his country’s newest advanced trainer as well.

The current LIFT course standardisation flights at Decimomannu will continue until May.

© 2016 Airheadsfly.com editor Marcel Burger
Featured image (top): A pair of AMI T-346As ready about to depart on their next LIFT mission (Image © Aeronautica Militare)

First Polish pilot flies M-346

The first Polish Air Force pilot flew his first flight on the Finmeccanica M-346 in Lecce, Italy, last week. The flight marks the beginning of many more flight hours on the M-346 in Polish service. First deliveries of the type to Poland are scheduled for November.

Polish personnel started ground school in Lecce last November, first using Finmeccanica’s elaborated ground based training system associated with the M-346, which is called T-346 in Italian service.

Congratulations after a successful first flight. (Image © Italian Air Force)
Congratulations after a successful first flight. (Image © Italian Air Force)


The Polish will use the jet trainer all the way until phase 4 training, also known as Lead In Fighter Training (LIFT), the last step until converting to high performance jets like the F-16 and F-35

Lecce currently offers flight training to student pilots from Italy, Austria, Greece, Kuwait, the Netherlands and Poland. Click here for a full report on training at this airbase in southern Italy.

© 2016 Airheadsfly.com editor Elmer van Hest
Featured image: A T-346 at Lecce. (Image © Italian Air Force)

More details on Polish M-346 Masters

The first two M-346 Masters for Poland, ordered in 2014 as the result of the Polish Advanced Jet Trainer (AJT) tender, recently entered final assembly at Finmeccanica’s Venegono facility. They are the first of at least eight Italian made jet trainers for Poland, with more likely on the way. The first six pilots currently undergo training at the Italian Air Force’s 61 Wing at Lecce airbase.

To commemorate the progress made on the first two jets, general commander of the Polish Army Miroslaw Rozanski this week signed the fuselage of first Polish M-346 Master. The text on fuselage reads “from Italian to Polish land”, paraphrasing the Polish national anthem word and anticipating the actual delivery of the aircraft in November.

Four of the eight ordered M-346 Masters are already in various stages of final assembly. More pics showing M-346 production are here. Roll out and first flight of the first Polish Air Force M-346 are planned for May. With two expected in November, a further six should arrive in Dęblin airbase in 2017 in three batches of two.

The second aircraft in production. Image © Paweł Bondaryk)
The second aircraft in production. (Image © Paweł Bondaryk)


The cockpits of Polish M-346s are optimised for F-16 training, with three MFDs arranged similarly to the F-16’s cockpit. Specific Polish  features include a drag chute and a sliding cockpit curtain for IFR training. The jets will also be the first featuring an airframe-integrated P5 datalink pod.

More Masters

Since eight aircraft look to be insufficient to support proper training in Dęblin, exercising an option for a further four is a strong possibility. If the whole training system works as expected, even twelve M-346s may not be enough. The Polish Air Force Academy says it is receiving many requests from foreign air forces about training fast jet pilots.

The new  Masters are a massive leap forward from the 1960s-era and much-loved TS-11 Iskras. Full Mission Simulators and datalink capabilities should allow to significantly reduce costs of Lead-In Fighter Training (LIFT) and allow to move most of current Polish training in the US back to Poland.

An updated version of the M-346, designated T-100, is in the race to become the new jet trainer for the US Air Force. Finmeccanica has joined forces with Raytheon for the project.

© 2016 Airheadsfly.com contributor Paweł Bondaryk
Featured image: The very first aircraft for Poland. (Image © Paweł Bondaryk)

The message left by Miroslaw Rozanski, general commander of the Polish Army (Image © Paweł Bondaryk)
The message left by Miroslaw Rozanski, general commander of the Polish Army (Image © Paweł Bondaryk)

Raytheon & Finmeccanica join T-X race

UPDATED 24 February | US defense company Rayhteon and Finmeccanica have formally joined the T-X race to develop and deliver a new jet trainer aircraft for the US Air Force, Raytheon officialy announced on Monday 22 February. Their proposal will be based on the M-346 Master currently in service in Italy, Singapore and Israel.

Update | A fresh report by defensenews.com indicates Textron AirLand will not bid in the T-X program.

Raytheon and Finmeccanica will further develop the FNM Aeronautics (formerly Alenia Aermacchi) M-346 into the T-100 jet trainer that prepares future pilots for high performance military jets such as the F-35 Lightning II. It’s cockpit is expected to share many commonalities with the F-35, such as a large MFD. Honeywell Aerospace supplies F124 turbofan engines to power the T-100.


In the T-X program, the US looks for at least 350 of such aircraft to replace the current fleet of T-38 Talon jets, a type that has trained military pilots for decades and has seen several upgrades but now nears the end of its life.

An FNV Aeronautics M-346 at Lecce airbase in Italy. (Image © Elmer van Hest)
An FNM Aeronautics M-346 at Lecce airbase in Italy. (Image © Elmer van Hest)


The M-346 is used as a Lead-in Fighter Trainer (LIFT). The jet is capable of advanced training by using tactical simulation as well as datalink equipment. It can provide its pilots with a real time radar image provided by ground based or airborne radar systems, and it can replicate and attack threats on the ground and in the air. More on that is here at Airheadsfly.com. Poland should receive its first of eight M-346s soon and a ground attack version is being developed.


The Raytheon announcement was long awaited and comes days after Lockheed Martin’s statement that it also joins the T-X race together with Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI). In Italy, FNM Aeronautics has been hinting at cooperation with a new US partner for many months, especially after General Dynamics quit an existing cooperation in March 2015. The Italians need a US partner to have any chance at winning the bid.

Also in the race jointly are Saab and Boeing, who aim to design a new aircraft altogether. Lockheed Martin has backed away from designing from scratch and now bets on a version of the KAI designed T-50.  Furthermore, Textron AirLand will probably propose its Scorpion jet or a newly developed variant.

The Pentagon is expected to announce a winner in the T-X program in 2017. A contract is worth roughly 8.4 billion USD. The T-X program is regarded as the last in a recent series of big US airborne defense contract. The Long Range Strike Bomber (LRS-B) program was another. Norhrop Grumman was selected as the winner in that race in October 2015.

© 2016 Airheadsfly.com editor Elmer van Hest

Dutch Lightning testers – part 2

The future of Dutch air warfare is shaped in all of the vast airspace around Edwards Air Force Base, California. The two tools of the trade have clocked up over 500 flight hours since first delivery in 2013. They are two stealthy and somewhat secretive F-35A Lightning II fighter jets, flown and tested by four Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) pilots. The RNLAF is looking to get the most out of only 37 jets to be ordered. Cooperation may be key.

Read part 1 of this story here

The F-35 – current unit price roughly 88 million EUR – still has to win over the hearts and minds of the Dutch. The decision in 2013 to purchase 37 F-35s in several batches for 4.5 billion EUR was a hugely debated one, as is much about the – give or take – 380 billion EUR international weapons program in which the Netherlands is a ‘level 2’ partner. A Dutch follow-on order isn’t on anybody’s radar, except maybe the RNLAF’s. In the eyes of executive air force commander Alexander Schnitger, after 37 aircraft ‘there is no period, but a comma’, as Aviation Week reported in December.

The first Italian built F-35 seen during its first flight in September.
Related read: first Italian F-35 to cross Atlantic on 2 February.

For good reason. Of the 37 Lightning IIs, five constantly remain in the US for training and testing. The 32 aircraft in the Netherlands are flown by 29 combat ready pilots who use the jets for operational training and Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) to protect Dutch and NATO airspace. Combined with the fact that a number of jets is always in maintenance, it  leaves only four F-35s with pilots available for missions abroad at any time. Four fighter jets on deployment is a long way from the more substantial contributions the RNLAF made to international military campaigns in the past.

“We’re studying our options”, says Marten Hendriksma, chief of RNLAF fighter operations. “The current plan is to stop using the F-16 in 2023. Until then, we are looking to use the F-16 as a companion aircraft alongside our F-35s, much in the same way we tested last year over Edwards.”

Both F-35s seen during their first arrival at Edwards. (Image © Frank Crébas/ Bluelifeaviation.com)
Both F-35s seen during their first arrival at Edwards. (Image © Frank Crébas/ Bluelifeaviation.com)
An F-35 lights the afterburner on its Pratt and Whitney F135 engine. (Image © Frank Crébas/ Bluelifeaviation.com)
An F-35 lights the afterburner on its Pratt & Whitney F135 engine. (Image © Frank Crébas/ Bluelifeaviation.com)

M-346 Master

To ease pressure on future F-35 operations, the RNLAF is also looking at the FNM Aeronautics (formerly Finmeccanica) M-346 as a companion operational trainer next to the stealthy F-35. Or perhaps not? Hendriksma has his doubts: “It is a great trainer, as some of our pilots now find out in Italy. But I don’t think it is in the same league as the F-35.” As far as operational training goes, the RNLAF could also rely on the support of civil contractors, just like it did during the integration training at Edwards last year.

An FNV Aeronautics M-346 at Lecce airbase in Italy. (Image © Elmer van Hest)
An FNV Aeronautics M-346 at Lecce airbase in Italy. (Image © Elmer van Hest)


On the subject of training, the number of trained Dutch F-35 pilot will remain at four for some time. Future Dutch F-35 conversion training takes place at Luke Air Force Base. In 2019, the RNLAF will receive six more jets produced by Lockheed Martin in Fort Worth. They will will fly the short hop to Luke for pilot training, which takes 70 actual flight hours for inexperienced F-16 jocks and 60 hours for seasoned pilots. Training an instructor pilot takes 100 hours.

Also in 2019, the Final Assembly and Check-Out (FACO) facility in Cameri which is run by – again –  FNM Aeronautics, will deliver two F-35s to the RNLAF. These two Italian-made aircraft will be the first to be based in the Netherlands. All next batches for Dutch F-35s will be manufactured in Cameri under the careful eye of Lockheed Martin. By 2023, all 37 aircraft should be delivered, with the current number of 61 F-16s set to dwindle from 2019 onwards.

Between then and 2023, the RNLAF faces an intensive transition from the fourth generation fighter aircraft that is the current F-16 to the fifth and latest generation that is the F-35. It will surely have an impact on Dutch involvement in international military missions like the current one over Iraq. That mission comes to an end later this year. After that, there’s a least another Baltic Air Policing shift to be fulfilled using the F-16.

Between now and 2023, the F-35 and F-16 both fly in RNLAF service. After that, they'll part ways. (Image © Ministerie van Defensie)
Between now and 2023, the F-35 and F-16 both fly in RNLAF service. After that, they’ll part ways. (Image © Ministerie van Defensie)
Close up in the office (Image © Ministerie van Defensie)
Close up in the office (Image © Ministerie van Defensie)

Dutch introduction

The first Lightning II to be based in the Netherland, arrives at Leeuwarden airbase in 2019 to be  introduced into 322 squadron. Two years later, Volkel airbase it is to welcome its first jet. By 2023, three squadrons operate the new aircraft. It is somewhat frustrating for the RNLAF however to see the Norwegians getting their aircraft in-country in 2017 already, whereas they only received their  first jets last November. The Dutch debate slowed down decision making. The government in The Hague was only able to order the first batch of eight F-35s in March 2015, five years after buying the first two test aircraft.

“We did indeed lose time there”, says Marten Hendriksma. “On the other hand, we’ll have a mature aircraft that we’ll know inside out and have validated tactics at our disposal. But it still was strange to see Norway broadcast the handover of their first jets live on national television. Our aircraft’s appearance this year at Leeuwarden will be a milestone in that respect. An expensive project like the F-35 deserves its critics, but we are working to win over Dutch hearts and minds for it.”

The Dutch royal crown rests on the RNLAF emblem on the F-35's tail. (Image © Frank Crébas/ Bluelifeaviation.com)
The Dutch royal crown rests on the RNLAF emblem on the F-35’s tail. (Image © Frank Crébas/ Bluelifeaviation.com)
More Dutch detail on this F-35. (Image © Frank Crébas/ Bluelifeaviation.com)
More Dutch detail on this F-35. (Image © Frank Crébas/ Bluelifeaviation.com)

Shared QRA

Dutch F-35s reach Initial Operational Capability (IOC) in 2021 and Full Operational Capability (FOC) in 2024. In 2023 the stealthy jet takes up Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) duties. Starting 2016, the Dutch will share their QRA with the Belgian Air Component, saving costs and freeing up enough available fighter jets and pilots for operations abroad.

The Belgians still have to decide what aircraft replaces their F-16s from 2024 onwards, however. The F-35 is a candidate, but so are the Boeing Super Hornet, Saab Gripen, Dassault Rafale and Eurofighter Typhoon. “Of course it would be great to see Belgium operate the same jet as we do, but it is by no means a condition for sharing QRA. Our counterparts from Brussels regularly ask about the F-35, but keep in mind they are not a partner in the program. It means we cannot tell them everything we would maybe like to. But I’m sure they will make the right choice for them.”

Cruising along. (Image © Frank Crébas/ Bluelifeaviation.com)
Cruising along into the future. (Image © Frank Crébas/ Bluelifeaviation.com)

Future missions

Four deployable Dutch F-35s in the future may not seem like much compared to the current eight available F-16s, but the F-35 offers a more valuable contribution to any campaign thanks to its warfare and weapons suite – its internal (GAU)-22/A 25mm Gatling gun being just one of those weapons. It is currently the subject of testing at Edwards and is embedded in the F-35A’s left wing root in a way that maintains the jet’s stealthy characteristics. According to the F-35 Joint Program Office, the F-35 should have an operational gun in 2017. Both Dutch F-35s have the gun already fitted, but have yet to use it during testing at Edwards.

Hendriksma states that F-35 future deployments will have a footprint that is comparable to today’s F-16 missions. “The real impact is in the transition period starting 2019. There’s a big and fantastic challenge ahead of us, and the Dutch team at Edwards is now getting the first taste of exactly that. They’re shaping the future of Dutch air warfare.”

© 2016 Airheadsfly.com editor Elmer van Hest
Featured image (top): Two Royal Netherlands Air Force F-35s explore Californian skies. (Image © Frank Crébas/ Bluelifeaviation.com)